Mexican composer of Huichol Indian heritage. He began playing the church organ by ear, at the age of nineteen, and later played the clarinet in a band. He enrolled in the National Conservatory in 1931, and studied composition with Chavez, and piano with Rodriquez Vizarra. In 1935 he formed the “Group of Four” with Ayaya Perez, Salvador Contreras, and Jose Moncayo creating Mexican music with native instruments and melodies. His most widely played work was Sones de Mariachi which was Mexican street serenades. In 1941-1942 he studied with Copland at the Berkshire Music Center, and in 1943 his orchestral suite Arroyos was played. He became director of the Conservatory from 1947-1961, and in 1947 was appointed head of the music department at the National Institute of Fine Arts. He won a National Arts Prize in 1964. His works range from folklore to dissonant, polyphonic concepts.