Born in Zaapache, now known as San Bártolo Coyotepec, Oaxaca, Mathias was the first Zapotec musician to acquire the position of maestro de capilla. He was a singer and organist who proved skill in many other instruments such as the clavichord, lute, viola, and flute. He was under the instruction of maestro Juan de Ribera who died in 1655.
Mathias held the position of maestro until his death in 1667. His music was very popular to the indigenous world and his piece Stabat mater is still performed on Good Friday in Oaxaca.